Every year, February 28 is celebrated as the National Science Day in India. The day marks the discovery of the Raman effect by Indian physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman on 28 February 1928.
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for this discovery.
National Science Day is celebrated all over the country in schools, colleges, universities and other academic, scientific, technical, medical and research institutions.
The celebrations of this day include showcasing the country’s competence in the field of science. On this day, whole nation takes the honour of thanking all the scientists for their remarkable contributions and dedication on this occasion.
For 2012 the theme of National Science Day is “Clean Energy Options and Nuclear Safety”
What is Raman Effect
Raman effect, popularly known as Raman scattering is an inelastic scattering of a photon.
When light is scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically scattered with almost the same energy (frequency) and wavelength as the incident photons. But a small fraction of the photons is scattered by excitation. The frequency of scattered photons is lower than the frequency of the incident photons.
The Raman Effect led to the growth of a new discipline, Raman Spectroscopy, which has now become a powerful tool for a wide range of scientific investigations and industrial applications.
About Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman :
Raman was a genius. He finished school education at the age of 11 and graduated in Physics and English from the University of Madras four years later. At 17, he did his Master’s in Physics. Thereafter, he joined the Indian Audit and Accounts Service and was posted at Kolkata. But his love for Physics continued.
In 1915, he was appointed Palit Professor of Physics in the Science College of Calcutta University. In 1933, he moved to Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, as its Director. After Independence, the Government of India appointed him the first National Professor.
Raman was a compulsive and relentless investigator. He never stopped learning and doing research. After his retirement in 1948, he established Raman Research Institute at Bangalore and continued to work there till his death on November 7, 1970.